Thursday, September 13, 2012

1662 & 1962: IV. The Lord's Supper (Part One)

This is the fifth in a series by Consular on the 1662 BCP and the 1962 Canadian BCP. Read the first article here for an index.
I. Up to the Comfortable Words
RED denotes passages omitted from 1662.
BLUE denotes additions by 1962.
GREEN denotes large passages unchanged by 1962.

¶  denotes a rubric.

The 1662 BCP stipulates that: there shall be no Celebration of the Lord's Supper, except there be at least three persons resent to communicate with the Priest.

The 1962 BCP reduces the requirement to one person.

[The 1962 is here similar to the old Roman rite of 1570-1962, which stipulates that only a priest and server are necessary for the service.]


¶  The Table at the Communion-time having a fair white linen cloth upon it, shall stand in the body of the Church, or in the Chancel, where Morning and Evening Prayer are appointed to be said. And the Priest standing at the North-side of the Table, shall say the Lords Prayer, with the Collect following, the People kneeling.

[The location of the altar or holy table is not specified by 1962.]

[The famous North-end celebration rubric is removed in 1962, making it unclear whether there is an expected liturgical orientation.]

[An Introit may be sung or said as the Priest proceeds to the holy Table in 1962. The introit is a Psalm verse or verses proper to Sundays and festival days.]

                                                            (THE LORD'S PRAYER)

[The Lord's Prayer is changed in 1962 from "which art in Heaven" to "who art in Heaven"]

                                                       (THE COLLECT FOR PURITY)

¶ Then shall the Priest, turning to the People, shall rehearse distinctly all the TEN COMMANDMENTS; and the People still kneeling, shall after every commandment ask God mercy for their transgression thereof for the time past, and grace to keep the same for the time to come, as followeth.

["Turning to the people" becomes "facing the people" in 1962.]

[In 1962 it suffices for the second and fourth Commandments, to read only the first paragraph of each.]

[In 1962, this Preface precedes the first Commandment: "Hear the Law of God which was given to Israel in old time."]

                                                     (THE TEN COMMANDMENTS)

[The rehearsal of the Commandments is only obligatory once a month in 1962.  The Two Great Commandments of the Law, a much shorter declaration combining Mark 12:29-31 with Matthew 22:37-40, may be said in place of the Ten Commandments.]
[1962 adds an optional triple invocation after the Ten Commandments: "Lord have mercy upon us, Christ have mercy upon us, Lord have mercy upon us", echoing the post-Gregorian reform of the Roman Eucharist from the A.D. 590s, used by Rome up to the present day.]

[1962 optionally allows "The Lord be with you; and with thy spirit." to be said here, as in the Roman liturgy and others.]

¶ Then shall [1962: may] follow one of these two Collects for the King/Queen, the Priest standing as before, and saying,

[Note that loyalty to the governing authorities by prayer for them is only optional in 1962.]

("Almighty God, whose kingdom is everlasting, and power infinite...")

[The second Collect for the Monarch is omitted in 1962, though it is moved, unchanged, to a section of general prayers outside the Communion service unchanged.]

¶ Then shall be said the Collect of the day. And immediately after the Collect, the Priest shall read the Epistle, saying "The Epistle [or, the portion of Scripture appointed for the Epistle] is written in the ____ Chapter of ____ beginning at ____ verse." And the Epistle being ended, he shall say "Here endeth the Epistle."

[1962 directs the priest to pray the Collect of the day, "together with any other Collects appointed to be said".]

[1962 specifies that the people shall be seated for the Epistle.]

Then shall he read the Gospel (the people all standing up), saying "The Holy Gospel is written in the ____ Chapter of ____ beginning at the ____ verse." And the Gospel ended, shall be sung or said the Creed following, the people still standing, as before.

[1962 allows a Psalm (for Sundays and Holy-days) or Hymn to be sung between Epistle and Gospel, much like the then-future reformed Roman rite, of 1969.]

[1962 directs the people to sing or say "Glory be to thee, O Lord" before the Gospel, and "Praise be to thee, O Christ" after the Gospel - mirroring the Roman rite, and similar to some other ancient rites.]

                                                           (THE NICENE CREED)

[1962 directs the minister to omit the Creed at his discretion on weekdays, unless they are "Holy-days".]

¶ Then the Curate shall declare unto the people what Holy-days, or Fasting-days, are in the week following to be observed. And then also (if occasion be) shall notice be given of the Communion; and Briefs, Citations, and Excommunications read. And nothing shall be proclaimed or published in the Church during the time of Divine Service, but by the Minister : nor by him any thing, but what is prescribed in the Rules of this Book, or enjoined by the Queen, or by the Ordinary of the place.
[1962 omits the announcement of excommunications, in light of which we can see the modern decline of that practice.]

Then shall follow the Sermon, or one of the Homilies already set forth, or hereafter to be set forth, by authority. *
[* 1962 merely says "THE SERMON", giving no mention of the Homilies.]

¶ Then shall the Priest return to the Lord’s Table, and begin the Offertory, saying one or more of these Sentences following, as he thinketh most convenient in his discretion.

[1962 does not direct the minister to say the Offertory sentences as he thinks most convenient, but rather assigns most sentences to certain liturgical seasons. Of the 20 original sentences present in 1662, 8 are present in 1962.]

                                                              THE OFFERTORY

"Let your light so shine before men..." [Matthew 5:16] is has the superscription "Epiphany" in 1962.

"Lay not up for yourselves treasure upon the earth..." [Matthew 6:20-21] has the superscription "Ascension Day" in 1962.

[This Sentence in 1962 does not include the negatives, but the positives: "Lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven...", including "for where your treasure is, there will your heart be also",  shifting the Sentence from 20-21 to 21-22. This is characteristic of 1962, which consistently shifts emphasis away from negation and denial.]

"Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you..." [Matthew 7:12] has the superscription "Whitsunday" in 1962.

"Not everyone that saith unto me, Lord, Lord..." [Matthew 7:21] has the superscription "Trinity" in 1962.

"He that soweth little shall reap little..." [2 Corinthians 9:6-7] has the superscription "Rogation and Harvest" in 1962.

"While we have time, let us do good unto all men..." has the superscription "Advent" in 1962.

[This Sentence in 1962 changes "While we have time" to "As we have opportunity", moving away from the urgency and time-limit on our charity, toward a lackadaisical opportunism. 1962 here does not present the fact that Christ may come again at any moment and demand an account.]

"To do good and to distribute forget not..." is of general use in 1962, as in 1662.

"Blessed be the man that provideth for the sick and needy..." is of general use in 1962, as in 1662.

[This Sentence in 1962 changes "the man that provideth for the sick and the needy" to "he that considereth the poor and needy", moving away from the urgency of helping the sick (who may be in danger of death!) toward the general "poor". Also, 1962 swapping "provide" with "consider" may be interpreted as inviting mere prayer for the poor, rather than active provision.]

1962 adds these new verses:
General use ~ Psalm 50:14, Exodus 35:21, Psalm 96:8, Acts 20:35
Christmas ~ 2 Corinthians 8:9
Lent ~ Romans 12:1
Passiontide ~ Ephesians 5:2
Maundy Thursday ~ John 13:34
Easter and Festivals ~ Revelation 5:12

Whilst these Sentences are in reading, the Deacons, Church-wardens, or other fit person appointed for that purpose, shall receive the Alms for the Poor, and other devotions of the people, in a decent basin to be provided by the Parish for that purpose; and reverently bring it to the Priest, who shall humbly present and place it upon the holy Table.*

[1962 makes no mention of deacons here, which is actually a reversal of the ancient practice of Deacons taking in alms, faithfully continued by the 1662.]

[* 1962 adds that the Priest may have the bread and wine brought up to him by Churchwardens or other representatives of the people, if he so desires.

These instances of "may be" & "if so desired" are characteristic of 1962. There is clearly an effort to reconcile Ritualist and Evangelical factions with a very broad, loose commonality.]

¶ And when there is a Communion, the Priest shall then place upon the Table so much Bread and Wine, as he shall think sufficient. After which done, the Priest shall say, *

[* 1962 says:
¶ the Bread shall be the best and purest wheat bread, whether leavened or unleavened, and the Wine pure grape wine, with which a little water may be mingled. Then shall one of the Ministers ask the prayers of the people, using always either the first or the last of the following Biddings, together with one or more others if so desired; and he may provide short periods for silent prayer.]

[1962  allows the following to be said or sung before the Intercession: "Blessed be thou, Lord God of Israel, for ever and ever. All that is in the heaven and in the earth is thine. All things come of thee, and of thine own have we given thee." 1 Chronicles 29:10-11, 14

The first verse is used at this point in the 1969 reformed Roman Eucharist.]

1962: "Let us pray for Christ's holy Catholic Church."
1962: "Let us pray for peace on earth and for the unity of all Christian people."
1962: "Let us pray for our missionaries at home and abroad."
1962: "Let us remember before God those of our brethren who have departed this life and are at rest."

1662 & 1962: "Let us pray for the whole state of Christ's Church militant here in Earth."

[Note the clear encouragement in one of the options of 1962 to pray for the whole Church, militant and triumphant; also, note the ambiguity of the call to "remember" the dead.]

"ALMIGHTY and everliving God, who by thy holy Apostle hast taught us to make prayers, and supplications, and to give thanks for all men; We humbly beseech thee most mercifully [* to accept our alms and oblations, and *] to receive these our prayers, which we offer unto thy Divine Majesty; beseeching thee to inspire continually the Universal Church with the spirit of truth, unity, and concord: And grant, that all they who do confess thy holy Name may agree in the truth of thy holy Word, and live in unity, and godly love.

[* 1662 here says: If there be no alms or oblations, then the words ["of accepting our alms and oblations"] be left out unsaid.

This caveat is not present in 1962; the phrase "alms and oblations" is part of every Communion service.]

We beseech thee also to save and defend all Christian Kings, Princes, and Governours [1962: to lead all nations in the way of righteousness; and so to guide and direct their governors and rulers, that thy people may enjoy the blessings of freedom and peace]; * and specially [1962: and grant unto] thy Servant N. our King/Queen; that under him we may be godly and quietly governed: And grant unto him whole Council, and to all that are put in authority under him, that they may truly and impartially administer justice, to the punishment of wickedness and vice, and to the maintenance of thy true religion, and virtue.

[1962 again removes most references to punishment, wickedness, and vice as regards both to prayer and civil government.]

Give grace, O heavenly Father, to all Bishops and Curates [1962: All Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, and specially to thy servant N. our Bishop,] that they may both by their life and doctrine set forth thy true and lively Word, and rightly and duly administer thy holy Sacraments. * And to all thy people give thy heavenly grace; and especially to this congregation here present; that, with meek heart and due reverence, they may hear, and receive thy holy Word; truly serving thee in holiness and righteousness all the days of their life. And we most humbly beseech thee, of thy goodness, O Lord, to comfort and succour all those [1962: them] who, in this transitory life, are in trouble, sorrow, need, sickness, or any other adversity +. ++ And we also bless thy holy Name for all thy servants departed this life in thy faith and fear [1962: for all, who in life and death have glorified thee]; beseeching thee to give us grace so to [1962: that, rejoicing in their fellowship, we may] follow their good examples, that with them we may be partakers of thy heavenly kingdom. Grant this, O Father, for Jesus Christ’s sake, our only Mediator and Advocate +++. Amen.

[* 1962 here interjects: "Prosper, we pray thee, all those who proclaim the Gospel of thy kingdom among the nations."]

[+ 1962 here adds "especially those for whom our prayers are desired", which is a curiously superfluous addition to a General Intercession.]

[++ 1962 prefaces this section with: "We remember before thee, O Lord, all thy servants departed this life in thy faith and fear: and we bless thy holy Name..."]

[+++ 1962 here appends a doxology: to whom, with thee and the Holy Ghost, be all honour and glory, world without end.]

[Note: in 1962 the departed servants of God do not merely glorify God in life, but now in death also.]

[Note: we no longer merely ask to follow the good example of the saints, but ask that we may have fellowship with them. Everywhere in this book, we are edged closer to veneration of saints and prayer to the dead, but never pushed over the edge.]

                                                   EXHORTATION AND CONFESSION

[Note: The following exhortations, present here in 1662, are printed after the conclusion of the service, in 1962. The two exhortations to receive Communion are spliced together in 1962.]

¶ When the Minister giveth warning for the celebration of the holy Communion, (which he shall always do upon the Sunday, or some Holy-day, immediately preceding,) after the Sermon or Homily ended, he shall (1962: may) read this Exhortation following:

"DEARLY beloved, on ----- day next I purpose [1962: I intend], through God’s assistance, to administer to all such as shall be religiously and devoutly disposed the most comfortable Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ [1962: to celebrate the Lord's Supper]..."

[Note: 1962 only requires the first paragraph of the four-paragraph exhortation to be read, at the Minister's discretion, so long as ¶ he read the whole Exhortation on some Sunday before Christmas Day, Easter Day, and Whitsunday, all the people all standing. This is a drastic reduction in usage.]

¶ At the time of the Celebration of the Communion, the Communicants being conveniently placed for the receiving of the holy Sacrament, the Priest shall say this Exhortation.*

[* 1962 specifies that this exhortation to repentance shall immediately precede the Sermon or come before the General Confession following. Its use is optional, except it must be said at least one Sunday in Advent, and one Sunday in Lent.]
"DEARLY beloved in the Lord, ye that mind to come to the holy Communion of the Body and Blood of our Saviour Christ, must consider how Saint Paul exhorteth all persons diligently to try and examine themselves, before they presume to eat of that Bread, and drink of that Cup. For as the benefit is great, if with a true penitent heart and lively faith we receive that holy Sacrament; (for then we spiritually eat the flesh of Christ, and drink his blood; then we dwell in Christ, and Christ in us; we are one with Christ, and Christ with us;) so is the danger great, if we receive the same unworthily. For then we are guilty of the Body and Blood of Christ our Saviour; we eat and drink our own damnation (1962: condemnation), not considering (1962: discerning) the Lord’s Body; we kindle God’s wrath against us; we provoke him to plague us with divers diseases, and sundry kinds of death. * Judge therefore yourselves, brethren, that ye be not judged of the Lord... [etc.]"

[* Note the omission of the solemn warning to those who would receive unworthily, in 1962.]

¶ Then shall the Priest say to them that come to receive the holy Communion,*
[* 1962: ¶ Then shall the Priest or one of the Ministers say:]

EXHORTATION: ("YE that do truly and earnestly repent you of your sins...")

¶ Then shall this general Confession be made, in the name of [1962: by] all those that are minded to receive the holy Communion, by one of the Ministers, both he and all the people
kneeling humbly upon their knees, and saying, [1962: both priest and people humbly kneeling.]

"ALMIGHTY God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Maker of all things, judge of all men; We acknowledge and bewail our manifold sins and wickedness, Which we, from time to time, most grievously have committed, By thought, word, and deed, Against thy Divine Majesty, Provoking most justly thy wrath and indignation against us.* We do earnestly repent, And are heartily sorry for these our misdoings; The remembrance of them is grievous unto us; The burden of them is intolerable. Have mercy upon us,* Have mercy upon us, most merciful Father; For thy Son our Lord Jesus Christ’s sake, Forgive us all that is past; And grant that we may ever hereafter Serve and please thee In newness of life, To the honour and glory of thy Name; Through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen."

[* Note what is omitted. Shall the repentant sinner have no chance to learn the grievous nature of sin throughout the entirety of this service?]

¶ Then shall the Priest (or the Bishop, being present,) standing up, and turning himself to the people, pronounce this Absolution.

ABSOLUTION: ("ALMIGHTY God, our heavenly Father...")

¶ Then shall the Priest say,

"Hear what comfortable words our Saviour Christ saith unto all that truly turn to him.

'COME unto me all that travail [1962: labour] and are heavy laden, and I will refresh you.' (St. Matthew 11:28)

'So God (1962: God so) loved the world, that he gave his only-begotten Son, to the end that all that believe in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.' (St. John 3:16)

Hear also what Saint Paul saith.

'This is a true saying, and worthy of all men to be received, That Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners.' (1 Timothy 1:15)

Hear also what Saint John saith.

'If any man sin, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous; and he is the propitiation for our sins'." 1 St. John 2:1-2

                                                                  Here ends the first part.

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