Thursday, August 30, 2012

1662 & 1962: II. The Catechism

This is the third in a series by Consular on the 1662 BCP and the 1962 Canadian BCP. Read the first article here for an index.

1662 BCP: That is to say, an Instruction to be learned of every person, before he be brought to be confirmed by the Bishop.

1962 BCP: An Instruction to be learned by every person, before he be brought to be confirmed by the Bishop.

RED denotes omissions from 1662.
BLUE denotes additions by 1962.

[Note: 1662 makes no reference to who is asking the questions; each question is simply preceded by Question. - 1962 changes this to Catechist.]

RUBRIC, 1962: The Pastor of every Parish shall diligently, upon Sundays and Holy-days, or at such other times as he shall think convenient, instruct and examine the children of his Parish in this Catechism; and it is desirable that this should be done openly in the Church, from time to time, after the Second Lesson at Morning or Evening Prayer.


RUBRIC, 1962: The Catechist shall say:


Q. "What is your name?"

A. "N. or M." (1962: The person shall give his Christian Name or Names.)


Q. "Who gave you this Name?"

A. "My Godfathers and Godmothers in my Baptism; wherein I was made a member of Christ, the child of God, and an inheritor of the kingdom of Heaven."


Q. "What did your Godfathers and Godmothers then (do) for you?

A. "They did promise and vow three things in my name. First, that I should renounce the devil and all his works, the pomps and vanity of this wicked world (1962: the vain pomp and glory of the world) and all the sinful lusts (1962: desires) of the flesh. Secondly, that I should believe all the Articles of the Christian Faith (1962: believe and confess the Christian Faith). And thirdly, that I should keep Gods holy will and commandments, and walk in the same all the days of my life."


Q. "Dost thou (1962: Do you) not think that thou art bound to believe, and to do as they have promised for thee?"

A. "Yes verily (1962: Yes, I do); and by Gods help so I will. And I heartily thank our heavenly Father, that he hath (1962: has) called me to this state of salvation, through Jesus Christ our Saviour. And I pray unto God to give me his grace, that I may continue in the same unto my lives (1962: life's) end.


Q. "Rehearse the Articles of thy Belief." (1962: "Recite the Apostles' Creed, the Articles of your Belief.")


RUBRIC, 1962: Note that the words in the Creed "He descended into hell" are considered as words of the same meaning as "He went into the place of departed spirits."


Q. "What dost thou chiefly learn in these Articles of your Belief?"

A. First, I learn to believe (1962: I learn to have faith in the one true God:) in God the Father, who hath made me, and all the world. Secondly, in God the Son, who hath redeemed me, and all mankind. Thirdly, in God the holy Ghost (1962: Holy Spirit), who sanctifieth me, and all the elect people of God (1962: who sanctifies me and all the people of God).


1962 Q. "What do you mean by 'the people of God'?"

1962 A. "I mean Christ's holy Catholic Church into which I have been baptized."


1662 Q. "You said that your Godfathers and Godmothers did promise for you, that you should keep God's commandments. Tell me how many there be.

1662. A. "Ten."

1962 Q. "You said that your Godfathers and Godmothers promised for you that you would keep God's holy will and commandments. To whom were these Commandments given?

1962. A. "To his ancient people Israel, by the hand of his servant Moses."


Q. "Which be they?" (1962: "What are these Commandments?")


RUBRIC, 1962: Note that the word Sabbath is a Hebrew word meaning Rest.

RUBRIC, 1962: In the case of the Second and Forth Commandments it shall be sufficient to memorize the first paragraph.


1962 Q. "How does the Christian Church receive and teach these Commandments?"

1962 A. "According to their spirit and purpose, as our Lord teaches us in the Gospel."


Q. "What dost thou/do you chiefly learn by these commandments?"

A. "I learn two things: my duty towards God, and my duty towards my neighbour."


Q. "What is thy (your) duty towards God?"

A. "My duty towards God, is to believe in him, to fear him, and to love him with all my heart, with all my mind, with all my soul, and with all my strength; to worship him, to give him thanks, to put my whole trust in him, to call upon him (1962: to pray to him), to honour his holy Name and his Word; and to serve him truly all the days of my life."


1962 Q. "Why does the Church observe Sunday as the Lord's Day?"

1962 A. "Because it was on the first day of the week that our Lord rose from the dead."


1962 Q. "What is your duty as a Christian on the Lord's Day?"

1962 A. "To abstain from unnecessary work, and to go to church for the worship of God with his people."


Q. "What is thy (your) duty towards thy (your) neighbour?"

A. "My duty towards my neighbour, is to love him as myself, and to do to all men, as I would they should do unto me. To love, honour, and succour (1962: help) my father and mother. To honour and obey the King/Queen, and all that are put in Authority under him/her. To submit my self to all my governours, teachers, spiritual pastours, and masters. To order my self lowly and reverently to all my betters. (1962: To show respect to teachers and pastors; and to be courteous to all). To hurt no body by word or deed. To be true and just in all my dealing. To bear no malice nor hatred in my heart. To keep my hands from picking and stealing, and my tongue from evil speaking, lying, and slandering. TO keep my body in temperance; soberness, and chastity. Not to covet, nor desire other mens goods; but to learn and labour truly to get mine (my) own living, and to do my duty in that state of life, unto (1962: in the vocation to) which it shall please God to call me."


1962 Q. "What new Commandment did our Lord give to his disciples?"

1962 A. "A new Commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another; even as I have loved you, that ye also love one another."


[1962 Headline: PRAYER]

Catechist. "My good child (1962: My dear children), know this, that thou are not able to do these things of thy self (know well that you are not able to do these things of yourself), nor to walk in the commandments of God, and to serve him without his special grace (his grace and help), which thou must learn at all times to call for by diligent prayer. Let me hear therefore if thou canst say the Lords Prayer."



Q. "What desirest thou (do you desire) of God in this Prayer?"

A. "I desire my Lord God our heavenly Father, who is the giver of all goodness, to send his grace unto me, and to all people, that we may worship him, serve him, and obey him as we ought to do. And I pray unto God, that he will send us all things that he needful both for our souls and bodies; and that he will be merciful unto us, and forgive us our sins and help us to forgive others; and that it will please him to save and defend us in all dangers ghostly and bodily (1962: both of soul and body), and that he will keep us from all sin and wickedness, and from our ghostly enemy, and from everlasting death. And this I trust he will do of his mercy and goodness, through our Lord Jesus Christ. And therefore I say, Amen. So be it."


[1962 Headline THE SACRAMENTS]

Q. "How many Sacraments hath Christ ordained in his Church?"

A. "Two only (1962: Christ has ordained two Sacraments), as generally necessary to salvation, that is to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord, which is the Holy Communion.


Q. "What meanest thou (what do you mean) by this word Sacrament?"

A. "I mean an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace, given unto us, ordained by Christ himself, as a means whereby we receive the same (1962: receive this grace), and a pledge to assure us thereof."


Q. "How many parts are there in a Sacrament?"

A. "Two: the outward visible sign, and the inward spiritual grace."


Q. "What is the outward visible sign or form in Baptism?"

A. "Water: wherein (1962: in which) the person is baptized, in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."


Q. "What is the inward and spiritual grace in Baptism?"

A. "A death unto sin, and a new birth unto righteousness: for being by nature born in sin, and the children of wrath, (1962: born into man's sinful state), we are hereby made the children of grace by the power of the Holy Spirit."


Q. "What is required of persons to be baptized?"

A. "Reptentance, whereby they forsake sin, which separates them from God; and faith, whereby they stedfastly believe the promises of God, made to them in that Sacrament."


1662 Q. "Why then are Infants baptized, when by reason of their tender age they cannot perform them?"

1662 A. "Because they promise them both by their Sureities: which promise, when they come of age, themselves are bound to perform."

1962 Q. "Why then are Infants baptized?"

1962 A. "Infants are baptized so that, being received into Christ's Church, they may grow in grace and be trained in the household of faith."

1962 Q. "How can infants promise repentance and faith?"

1962 A. "Their Godfathers and Godmothers make the promise for them."

1962 Q. "When do they take this promise upon themselves?"

1962 A. "When they are confirmed by the Bishop and, through prayer and the laying on of hands, are strengthened by the Holy Spirit."]


Q. "Why was the Sacrament of the Lords Supper ordained?"

A. "For the continual remembrance of the Sacrifice of the death of Christ, and of the benefits which we receive thereby."


Q. "What is the outward part or sign of the Lords Supper?"

A. "Bread and Wine, which the Lord hath commanded to be received."


Q. "What is the inward part, or the thing signified?"

A. "The Body and Bloud (Blood) of Christ, which are verily and indeed taken and received by the faithful in the Lords Supper."


Q. "What are the benefits whereof we are partakers (1962: What benefits do we receive) thereby?"

A. "The strengthening and refreshing of our souls by the Body and Bloud of Christ, as our bodies are by the Bread and Wine."

1962. A. "The strengthening and refreshing of our souls and bodies unto eternal life by the Body and Blood of Christ."

[Note: Very interesting change of language: Transubstantiation implied?

In 1662, our bodies are nourished by Bread & Wine, and our souls are nourished by the Body & Blood of Christ.

In 1962, our bodies & souls are nourished by the Body & Blood of Christ.]


Q. "What is required of them (those) who come to the Lords Supper?"

A. "To examine themselves, whether they repent them truly (truly repent) of their former sins, stedfastly purposing to lead a new life; have a lively (living) faith in Gods mercy through Christ, with a thankful remembrance of his death; and be in charity with all men."

RUBRIC, 1962: The Catechist may conclude with a Collect and the following:

1 Peter 5:10-11

"The God of all grace, who has called us into his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you. To him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen."


The Curate of every Parish shall diligently upon Sundays and Holidays, after the second Lesson at Evening Prayer, openly in the Church instruct and examine so many children of his parish sent unto him, as he shall think convenient, in some part of this Catechism.
[Moved to the beginning of the Catechism in 1962]

And all Fathers, Mothers, Masters and Dames, shall cause their children; servants and prentices (which have not learned their Catechism) to come to the Church at the time appointed, and obediently to hear and be ordered by the Curate, until such time as they have learned all that is here appointed for them to learn.
[Removed in 1962]

So soon as children are come to a competent age, and can say in their Mother tongue, the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Commandments; and also can answer to the other questions of this short Catechism; they shall be brought to the Bishop. And every one shall have a Godfather or a Godmother; as a witness of their Confirmation. (1962: and also have been further instructed in the Church Catechism as it is given above; they shall be brought to the Bishop to be confirmed).

And whensoever (whenever) the Bishop shall give knowledge for children (shall give notice for persons) to be brought unto him for their Confirmation, the Curate (Pastor) of every Parish shall either bring, or send in writing, with his hand subscribed thereunto, the names of all such Persons within his Parish, as he shall think fit to be presented to the Bishop to be confirmed. And if the Bishop approve of them, he shall confirm them in the manner following.

[CONFIRMATION follows here in 1662.]


Questions and Answers which may be studied with the Church Catechism in the preparation of candidates for Confirmation or at other times.

Q. "What is the Church?"

A. "The family of God, the body of Christ, and the temple of the Holy Spirit."


Q. "What do we say about the Church in the Nicene Creed?"

A. "I believe One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church."


Q. "Why is it called One?"

A. "Because it has one Lord, one faith, and one baptism."


Q. "Why is it called Holy?"

A. "Because the Holy Spirit dwells in it, sanctifying all its members and endowing them with gifts of grace."


Q. "Why is it called Catholic?"

A. "Because it is universal, and holds for all time, in all countries, and for all people, the whole truth as it is in Jesus Christ, who is the same yesterday, today, and for ever."


Q. "Why is it called Apostolic?"

A. "Because it received its divine mission from Christ through his Apostles, and continues in their doctrine and fellowship."


Q. "What is the work of the Church in the world?"

A. "The work of the Church in the world is to offer to God on behalf of all men the worship which is his due; to make known to all men the Gospel of Jesus Christ; and to unite all men to God in one family."


Q. "How did our Lord provide for the life and work of the Church?"

A. "Our Lord sent his Holy Spirit upon the Church and upon his Apostles."


Q. "What authority did Christ give to his Apostles in the Church?"

A. "He gave them authority to preach the Word, to minister the Sacraments, to rule and care for his household the Church until his coming again."


Q. "What Orders of Ministers have been in the Church from the Apostles' time?"

A. "Bishops, Priests, and Deacons."


Q. "What is the work of a Bishop in the Church of God?"

A. "To be a chief pastor of the flock, to preach the Gospel, to guard well the Faith, to bless, to confirm, and to ordain, following the example of the blessed Apostles."


Q. "What is the work of a Presbyter or Priest?"

A. "To minister to the people committed to his care by the Bishop; to lead them in the worship of God and to preach his Word; to baptize; to celebrate the holy Communion; and to pronounce Absolution and Blessing in God's name."


Q. "What is the work of a Deacon?"

A. "To assist the Bishop or Priest in the Divine Service, and in other ministrations to the people of God."


Q. "What is your work as a lay member of the Church of God?"

A. "To take my part in its worship, labours, and councils, according to the gifts of grace that God has given me, and to pray, work, and give for the spread of his kingdom."


Q. "Why ought you to read God's holy Word, the Bible?"

A. "Because it tells how God has made himself known to man; and how we may come to know him, and find salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ in the fellowship of his Church."


Q. "What does the Church teach about the Bible?"

A. "The Bible records the Word of God as it was given to Israel, and to his Church, at sundry times and in divers manners; and nothing may be taught in the Church as necessary to man's salvation unless it be concluded or proved therefrom."


Q. "Where then is the Word of God to be found in all its fulness?"

A. "In Jesus Christ, his only Son, who was made man for us and for our salvation."


Q. "What is the vocation of a Christian in this world?"

A. "To follow Christ and bear witness to him; to fight the good fight of faith and lay hold on eternal life."


Every Christian man or woman should from time to time frame for himself a RULE OF LIFE in accordance with the precepts of the Gospel and the faith and order of the Church; wherein he may consider the following:

The regularity of his attendance at public worship and especially at the holy Communion. The practice of private prayer, Bible-reading, and self-discipline. Bringing the teaching and example of Christ into his everyday life. The boldness of his spoken witness to his faith in Christ. His personal service to the Church and the community. The offering of money according to his means for the support of the work of the Church at home and overseas.

Here endeth the CATECHISM.

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